Give me ten men who are stout-hearted men,
who will march for the Christ they adore;
Start me with ten who are Spirit-filled men,
and I'll soon give you ten thousand more.
S.E.W., WITH APOLOGIES TO THE COMPOSER
ALL THESE WERE . . . CHOICE MEN,
MIGHTY MEN OF VALOR, CHIEF LEADERS.
1 CHRONICLES 7:40
The human race has always loved teams of "a few good men." We adore them and make heroes of them. Jesus and eleven of His first disciples have captured and held the imagination of billions of believers over the last two millennia. Lowly at the beginning, they rose to the heights, and today they are the supreme team of all time. All are still remembered with gratitude by Christians around the world. We revere them as apostles of Jesus Christ and heralds of His Gospel salvation.
Centuries before Jesus walked the earth, His ancestor King David has his own mighty men, warriors whose accomplishments are immortalized in the pages of the Old Testament. In particular three men of war Josheb-Basshebeth the Tachmonite, Eleazar son of Dodo, and Shammah son of Agee are remembered because they performed incredible feats of valor in David's battles against the Philistines.1
In the annals of Roman history three romantic names stand out. They are the valiant soldier-heroes Horatius, Spurius Lartius, and Herminius who (according to historian Macauley) saved the city
against an invading army by guarding the bridge across the Tiber River until it could be cut down on the Roman side.
Greek history has its seven magnificent heroes Adrastus, Amphiaraus, and their fellow warriors who led a failed expedition to dethrone Eteocles, the ruler of Thebes. Aeschylus wrote a heroic drama about the Seven Against Thebes.
Early English history has taken us to Camelot, a city long lost in the mists of time, where King Arthur and his knights gathered at the famous Round Table, then rode out and wrought amazing deeds of goodness and mercy. Who can forget those knights Sir Gawain, Sir Percivale, Sir Galahad, and Sir Gareth? In Britain people still name their children after them.
In 1885 the great English cricketer C.T. Studd, his friend Stanley P. Smith, stroke of the Cambridge Boat, and five other young Christian men created a sensation by offering themselves as missionaries to China. One was the stroke of a "trial eight," one was a Dragoon guardsman, and another an officer of the Royal Volunteers. The eventual sailing of "the Cambridge Seven" for China caused a student revival to break out in the colleges and universities of the British Isles.2
Andrew Carnegie, the multimillionaire humanitarian and manufacturer who headed the United States Steel Corporation, once predicted that if everything he owned were taken away from him and destroyed, in ten years he would have it all back. His one stipulation: "Just leave me my men."
For over fifty years Billy Graham has conducted his international ministry for Jesus Christ in association with a team of men. Principal Gilbert Kirby of London Bible College called it "the most effective small team I have ever seen. You can liken it to the apostolic party with Paul, traveling around Asia Minor, going to strategic places. I don't know when there has been another small team like it. Certainly not in this century."3
Some of the men on the original Billy Graham team, which began to be formed in the mid-1940s, have been together for half a century and are still evangelizing to the glory of God. Rather than attempt to profile them properly, I will just speak of them briefly as my friends.
Because the whole team embraces so many men and women, I will limit my remarks to particular teammates who were active when I joined them in 1959 and with whom I worked for the next seventeen years. Most of them are alive at this writing, and several are still active on the team.
The four best-known members are Cliff Barrows, George Beverly Shea, Tedd Smith, and Grady Wilson. Since 1950 this immensely popular platform band has toured the world with Billy Cliff being the impresario and music leader, Bev the soloist, and Tedd the pianist and accompanist. Grady filled a special role as Billy's tour manager, traveling aide, bodyguard, and (on occasion) court jester. He was promoted to glory in 1987. The other three continue in active roles at this writing.
Three other names, not so universally known, belong with the original team. George Wilson was the BGEA treasurer almost from the very start. Walter Smyth, who joined in 1950, became in time the
director of crusades. T.W. Wilson, who had helped Billy earlier as a school vice president in Minnesota and subsequently during the 1945-50 crusades, came back from an Alabama pastorate in 1964 to be Billy's close personal assistant. These men formed the nucleus of the ministry that led well over a million people into a saving relationship with Jesus Christ.
The bounds of love in Christ held these seven men together, with others, through half a century of a most strenuous global evangelistic effort. Those bonds are still strong and deep. They include not only the men but also their wives, children, grandchildren and in some cases great-grandchildren. Altogether these seven, the inner core of the Billy Graham team, are a fascinating and dedicated band of Christian men. I never get over the thrill of having known and worked with them.
To use an analogy, when my present pastor, Mike MacIntosh, was young and unconverted, he yearned to become the "fifth Beatle." He listened to the Beatle's music, watched their movies by the hour, daydreamed, an even tried to work his way across the Atlantic to join them in England. Today, needless to say, he is a different person. He never became a Beatle, but he pastors the largest church in San Diego, California, has preached around the world, and is one of the great church builders and philanthropists of our time. (And he has also become a good musician!)
By contrast, I too had daydreams as a young man, but never could I have imagined that God would make me part of the Billy Graham team. Until certain godly people took hold of me, I had all the spirituality of a centipede. Even now, in my mid-eighties and retired, those years with Billy still seem to me incredible. I take my joy from the fact that all of the team are my warm friends and buddies. They took me as I am and treated me as a brother in Christ. In return, I vowed to God that when I became editor of Decision, I would give them hearty and plentiful support in the pages of the magazine which I did.
Here are further descriptions of Billy Graham's team, men of strong hearts whose love for Jesus made them one:
Cliff Barrows. The son of Christian parents, a rugged Californian
still strong and handsome in his seventies, Cliff is the program director and master of ceremonies at the Billy Graham crusade. He has led millions of singers all over the world in rendering choral praises to God. He has also produced the Hour of Decision radio broadcast, participates on several boards and ministries of the Billy Graham Association, edits songbooks, and is himself a fine evangelist, preacher and musician. In 1988 he was inducted into the Nashville Gospel Music Association Hall of Fame. But what people love most about Cliff is his cheerful, friendly, helpful spirit toward everyone. He sets the tone of the crusades. Cliff and I share this experience, that both our wives succumbed to cancer, and we are now each happily remarried. For me Cliff's friendship has ripened with the years. What a winsome guy! Billy Graham told 10,000 evangelists gathered in Amsterdam in 1986, "God has given me mighty men, but the mightiest of all has been Cliff Barrows."
George Beverly Shea. "Bev," a Canadian by birth, comes from a godly minister's home. He is a big man with a big heart, another widower who has happily remarried. Right from the start in Australia in 1959, I found Bev the most amiable and endearing of colleagues. His bass-baritone voice, recorded in hundred of songs, has lifted the hearts of millions to God. He is known, and has been known for decades, as "American's beloved gospel singer." Bev won a Grammy Award in 1965, and was elected to the Nashville Gospel Music Hall of Fame in 1987, and has been recording on RCA, World, and Star Song labels. He has been heard in concerts around the world. Even more than his talent, those who are close to him love him for his warm piety and humble mien. Now in his late eighties, Bev still sings a song of God's love at crusades just before Billy begins to preach his sermon.
Tedd Smith. Tedd Smith, also a Canadian-born Christian, won his first gold medal in piano at the age of nine at Canada's Peel Music Festival. Later he graduated from the Royal Conservatory of Music in Toronto. Tedd is a gifted musician and composer and an internationally known concert artist. Ruth and I have visited him and his lovely wife, Thelma, in their home, and he has written songs and covered stories for me as an editor. After forty-five years as Billy Graham's pianist, he has recently changed positions and is now producing the
programs of Billy's crusade ministry. Tedd's Tobago Suite, composed after the team paid an evangelistic visit to the Caribbean in 1959, contains some of my favorite music. His exquisite artistry and his devotion to Christ have brought a quality dimension to the team.
T.W. (Thomas Walter) Wilson. "T," as his friends call him affectionately, is first of all one of America's renowned preachers. He is also Billy Graham's personal assistant, his equerry, his bodyguard, his right-hand man, his associate evangelist, his present traveling companion, and generally is perhaps the most indispensable person on the team after the evangelist. He holds many positions of responsibility, including the oversight of Billy's radio stations. The son of a Charlotte, North Carolina, plumber who was a friend of Billy's father, "T" formerly pastored Baptist churches in Georgia and Alabama. He was vice president of Youth for Christ International and vice president of Northwestern Schools. He cares for his present duties on the team with Christian love, sound judgment, and genial disposition that makes all of us on the team love him.
Grady B. Wilson. Grady, "T's" younger brother, left us for heaven in the early fall of 1987. Grady, as a boy, went forward with Billy Graham in November 1934 at that famous revival service in Charlotte, North Carolina, when Mordecai Ham was the evangelist. Billy and Grady remained the closest of friends and traveled the world together until Grady's final illness and homegoing. It is hard to do justice to Grady Wilson in a few words. Time after time he helped me when I was in awkward situations. As an associate evangelist, he was splendid; as a salary humorist, he was beyond compare. Grady kept not only Billy, but everyone else, in good humor. Yet he had a mind like a rapier, knew exactly what to tell the media, and had an unerring instinct to protect Billy Graham. Paul Harvey, the commentator, once said that Grady had more horse sense than all the rest of the team put together.
Walter Herbert Smyth. Walter is known as Billy Graham's crusades architect all over the world. Quiet, tactful, effective, a minister and former vice president of Youth for Christ International, Walter joined the team as director of film distribution in 1950 at Billy's request. Before long he succeeded Jerry Beavan as director of
crusades and then became Billy Graham's vice president for international relations. A superb negotiator who traveled the globe tirelessly, Walter laid the foundation for Billy's great world congresses on evangelism in Berlin, Lausanne, and Amsterdam, and still later for his ministry behind the Iron Curtain in Romania, Hungary, and the former Soviet Union. When he directed the 1958 San Francisco crusade, Walter not only preached in my church in east Oakland, but he also opened publishing doors for my book Crusade at the Golden Gate. The book in turn led to my joining the team. Ruth and I pray daily for our friend Walter as he recovers slowly from his recent strokes.
George McConnell Wilson. When I first arrived in Minneapolis, Minnesota, in February 1959, George Wilson was an administrative giant and just about the most important person in the Twin Cities. As head of the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association's main office, secretary and treasurer of the board of directors, and corporate vice president, George talked daily with Billy Graham. He handled the finances, conducted an astonishingly successful direct-mail operation, and ran a tight ship. He was my boss. A rugged Baptist layman (though he is licensed to preach), he viewed me at first with some skepticism, but gave me the freedom to prove myself as the editor of Billy's magazine. George and his wife, Helen, were generous, kind, and gracious to me, to my late wife, Winola, and to our son Alexander. He supported good works around the world, and today he continues to be active in the Lord's work despite his confinement to a wheelchair as he recovers from a stroke.
Akbar Abdul-Haqq. When Billy Graham made his four-week tour of India in 1956, his interpreter was Dr. Haqq, who held a Ph.D. from Northwestern University in Chicago. A Methodist minister, Akbar became president of the Henry Martyn School of Islamics in Aligarh, Northern India. Billy invited Akbar to join his team as an associate evangelist and bring his large family to America. In the thirty years that have passed, Akbar has faithfully ministered the Gospel in his unique and effective way to millions of people in India, while also preaching Jesus Christ all over the Western world. The family home is in Burnsville, Minnesota.
Donald L. Bailey. Don began his team relationship in 1954 as one of Billy's traveling film exhibitors. Born of Christian parents in Pennsylvania, educated in New York and South Carolina, he met his wife, Robbie, in New Orleans while serving in uniform. After the Korean War, Don went from film exhibiting to helping build the Billy Graham North Carolina radio stations, WFGW/WMIT. Subsequently he became Billy's gifted radio and public relations executive and manager of the team office in Atlanta. Leaving for a three-year stint in hospital public relations in Nashville, Don was summoned back in 1989 to become program director at the new Billy Graham Training Center at The Cove, Asheville, North Carolina.
David M. Barr. A Baptist preacher, Barr has given the best years of his life to the spreading of the Gospel of Jesus Christ through Billy Graham films produced by World Wide Pictures. WWP, the cinematic arm of the BGEA, has brought hundreds of thousands of viewers to commit their lives to Christ. Starting in 1952 as a distributor-on-wheels, Dave became director in charge of twenty-eight full-time exhibitors in fifty states and Canada. He was then assigned to the whole world! For years Dave traveled on six continents, using subtitles for viewers in Swahili, Samoan, Hindi, etc., exhibiting films, and counseling inquirers. He still preaches a lot and lives with his family in Pennsylvania.
Ralph Bell. A scion of American slaves who escaped across the border to Canada 150 years ago, Ralph was a prison chaplain in Los Angeles when Billy Graham invited him to join the team as an associate evangelist. Ralph holds a degree from Fuller Theological Seminary and has conducted evangelistic crusades around the world, bringing Christ to thousands of people of every race and color. A man with a keen mind and a loving heart, he had a specially anointed ministry to Australian aborigines and to students in Papua New Guinea. In 1995, when Billy Graham collapsed briefly during a speech in Toronto, Canada, it was Ralph who stood in the gap and for three nights proclaimed the gospel message to his fellow Canadians. Hundreds of them walked forward at his invitation and committed their lives to Christ.
William F. (Bill) Brown. A native of Pennsylvania, a Bible college
graduate, Bill Brown was hired by Walter Smyth in 1952 to distribute and show Graham films in churches. While Bill was conducting a week's premier showing of the film Souls in Conflict at Carnegie Hall in New York City in 1954, Billy Graham brought over the beautiful star of the film, British actress Joan Winmill, a Harringay crusade convert. Bill and Joan fell in love and were married in April 1955. After their marriage Bill directed citywide crusades, including London '66 and '67 and New York '69. In 1970 he became president of World Wide Pictures, producing some great films such The Hiding Place and Joni. Bill still works with Billy Graham, and Joan has authored nineteen inspirational books.
Russell Busby. Some forty years ago, during the Oklahoma City crusade of 1956, Russ Busby came to the attention of George Wilson, Billy Graham's treasurer, who was looking for a photographer who loved the Lord. Soon Russ, his wife, Doris, and four children moved to Minnesota, and he began his remarkable and indispensable career as a photographer with the Billy Graham Association. He accompanied Billy on most of his trips. Several million excellent photographs later, he is still girdling the globe, recording history by camera, and making his own unique observations on the Christian life. Russ and I are fast friends. We worked on this book the way we worked as an editorial team for many years. He and his wife life in southern California.
John R. Corts, Jr. John is president and chief operating officer of the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association, a position he has held since 1983. Born in Indiana, he was educated at the same Trinity College that Billy attended. After being ordained and pastoring churches in Florida, he became in 1962 executive director of Tampa Youth for Christ. Two years later he joined the Billy Graham team but then returned to pastoring in 1980. John was chosen to become president of Trinity, which honored him with a doctorate. He filled key roles in Billy Graham's international conferences in Amsterdam, after which he was pointed head of the BGEA. His family home is now in Minneapolis.
John W. Dillon. For many years John Dillon, a Wesleyan preacher from South Dakota, held one of the more important portfolios
in Billy Graham's program training ministers in the work of evangelism. Under John's direction, Schools of Evangelism were conducted all over North American as well as in Britain and Ireland, with huge throngs of pastors attending. In the fall of 1961 John was pastoring a church in Aberdeen, South Dakota, when Leighton Ford held a crusade there. Shortly afterward John joined the team as a film exhibitor for World Wide Pictures, covering the upper Midwest. He later became director of the team associate evangelist's program and in 1980 took over the important leadership of the Schools of Evangelism. Illness took his wife, Louise, in 1988. Now happily remarried and retired, John and his wife, Betty, make their home in North Carolina.
Robert Oscar Ferm. Dr. Robert Ferm was the biblical scholar on the Billy Graham team. Quiet, congenial, erudite, beloved, he helped establish Billy's reputation as a genuine theologian and biblical apologist in the historic mainline of Paul, Augustine, Luther, Spurgeon, Kuyper, and Machen as well as an evangelist in the tradition of Paul, Chrysostom, Wesley, Whitefield, Finney, and Moody. Dr. Ferm did it with well-researched, strong books, Cooperative Evangelism, The Psychology of Christian Conversion, and Do the Billy Graham Converts Last? A Baptist pastor for several years, executive vice president of John Brown University, dean of Northwestern Schools, and dean of students at Houghton College, he led pastors' conferences for Billy, helped to found his Schools of Evangelism, and was one of Decision's first editors.
Leighton F.S. Ford. A strikingly impressive man, Leighton is married to Billy Graham's sister Jean. For thirty years he was vice president of the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association and an associate evangelist on the team. Leighton's clear-cut gospel message has been received with tremendous enthusiasm all over the world, most notably in his native Canada, the United States, Australia,and New Zealand. A loving husband and devoted father, author, and popular speaker, Dr. Ford is genial, compassionate, and highly perceptive. He left the Billy Graham team (with Billy's blessing) in 1986 to launch Leighton Ford Ministries. This successful independent Christian
work, in Leighton's words, "focuses on helping young evangelism leaders to lead more like Jesus and to lead more to Jesus.
Roy Gustafson. In 1965 Associate Evangelist Roy Gustafson took Winola and me on one of the hundreds of Holy Land tours he has conducted since joining the Billy Graham team in 1959. I learned what a superb gift of Bible teaching God has given him. Author, musician, preacher, husband, and father, he has taught the Bible in his inimitable style to tens of thousands of people around the world. Roy and Billy were fellow students at Florida Bible Institute. Years later it was Roy's Spirit-led discipling that God used to bring Billy's elder son Franklin into His kingdom. Roy continues active in his teaching ministry, and at the time of this writing is fulfilling an assignment in a Bible College in Malawi (formerly Nyasaland), Africa.
Henry Holley. Henry made his first contact with Billy Graham in 1958 and became an active volunteer at crusades while still on duty with the United States Marine Corps. Upon retirement from the military in 1967 with the rank of master sergeant, he began serving full time as crusade director in many parts of the world. For nearly three decades Henry has been a key field director for Billy in some of his greatest overseas ministries, notably in England, France, Australia, Jamaica, Philippines, Finland, Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Brazil. A brilliant strategist and beloved husband and father, Henry continues his active ministry as international crusade director and special assistant to Billy Graham.
Sterling W. Huston. A graduate of the University of Maine, Sterling became an industrial engineer at Eastman Kodak before directing Youth for Christ in Rochester, New York. He joined the Billy Graham team in 1966. One of his first assignments was to visit church leaders in Nassau, Bahamas, in preparation for a John Wesley White crusade. Winola and I accompanied Sterling and Esther, his bride of eighteen months, visiting the Anglican bishop and other spiritual leaders. One of Dr. White's greatest crusades came as a result in 1967. As teacher, negotiator, director of Billy Graham's North American crusades, and author of two excellent books on crusade evangelism, Dr. Sterling Huston has made an impressive contribution to the ministry of the Gospel in our time.
John Innes. England lost a good textile wool sorter in 1958 when twenty-year-old John Innes arrived at Moody Bible Institute, Chicago, for music training. His teacher was Dr. Don Hustad, who at the time was also Billy Graham's crusade organist. After further musical studies, John began playing the piano at Leighton Ford crusade meetings in 1962. When Hustad left for a teaching career, John replaced him at the electric organ. Since Tedd Smith's change of assignments after forty-four years, John is now Billy Graham's team pianist, filling the great meetings with magnificent keyboard music. He says, "I am so grateful to God for putting a song in my heart."
Howard Owen Jones. While playing saxophone in a jazz orchestra in Oberlin, Ohio, many years ago, Howard courted an attractive girl named Wanda Young. Her Christian witness convinced him to quit the band and accept the Savior. After graduating from Nyack College, they were married, and Howard pastored two Alliance churches. In 1957 Billy Graham invited Howard to become the first Black American associate evangelist on his team. For forty years Howard has led crusades in many parts of the world, including Africa. He is an author, a radio broadcaster, and the first of his race to be inducted into the National Religious Broadcasters' Hall of Fame. A godly wife, five beautiful children, and six grandchildren make him a man richly blessed.
John O. Lenning. A radio engineer who has traveled just about everywhere and done just about everything, John Lenning began life with a strong Christian (Scandinavian) background and spent five years in ministry with the Navigators. He served two years in the military during the Korean War before joining the Graham team as assistant to Cliff Barrows in 1959. For thirty-seven years John has taught training classes, led workshops, directed crusades for associate evangelists, and served as Billy Graham's technical stage manager. His key function is to produce The Hour of Decision, Billy's weekly radio program. He holds a degree from Furman University, but his greatest prize is his wife, Jerry, and their four children, all married and all Christians.
Victor B. Nelson. At the time of this writing Dr. Nelson, ninety-three years of age, continues to work at out-of-sight team tasks that
have occupied him since 1950. In that year he chaired a Billy Graham crusade in Minneapolis, where he was pastoring a church. In 1961 Victor chaired a second Minneapolis crusade and began occupying a full-time desk in Billy Graham's international headquarters, working on crusade preparation and related tasks. He has helped many people, including myself. His duties took him to Newfoundland, Denmark, West Germany, Singapore, The Netherlands, Switzerland, and other parts of the globe. He was associate director of international congresses in Berlin, Singapore, Amsterdam, and Lausanne. As executive assistant, he still counsels people from his Minneapolis home.
Charles Riggs. Charlie is one of God's most useful servants and one of the most popular men ever to join the Graham team. Discipled through the Navigators while rough-necking in the Pennsylvania oil-fields, he has been a team member almost from the beginning. Charlie radiates confidence in the Lord. A man of the Bible and of prayer, he has memorized hundreds of Bible verses and has had us all carrying verse packets in our wallets. He directed many major crusades beginning with the sixteen-week 1957 crusade in New York City, and after forty years, and he is still training counselors. He and his wife, LaRue, live in Colorado.
Norman Sanders, Jr. Born in Marion, Alabama, Norman studied at Washington University in St. Louis and Calvary Bible College in Kansas City before he joined Kansas City's Youth for Christ staff. In 1970 he married Cheryl, eldest daughter of Associate Evangelist Howard Jones, and began his BGEA career in Chicago. For twenty-six years Norman traveled to fifty-two cities on four continents, teaching Christian Life and Witness classes and recruiting and training crusade volunteers. At the time of writing, he is director of public relations at The Billy Graham Training Center at The Cove. Norman and Cheryl have two sons, Tim and Ryan.
Larry K. Turner. For almost thirty years Larry Turner was "our man" to Billy Graham "our man" in Oslo, Gothenburg, Iceland, Essen, Halifax, San Juan, and dozens of other places at home and abroad where Billy's gospel messages were going out. An enormously useful servant of the Lord and a delightful person to know,
Larry grew up in Portland, Oregon, and studied at Portland State, Chicago's North Park Seminary, and Portland's Western Baptist Seminary. Eventually Larry began directing major Billy Graham crusades himself and is currently assistant director of all North American crusades. He and his wife, Nancy, have three children and now live in Fairview, North Carolina.
John Wesley White. John joined the Billy Graham team as an associate evangelist in 1964. A Canadian, holder of a D. Phil. from Oxford, and a most effective preacher, he has won tens of thousands to Christ through his crusades around the world and through his books and his Canadian television ministry. I know of no one with a deeper love for his Lord. Husband of Kathleen, father of four boys, for thirty-two years John has been an author and scholar as well as an indefatigable soul-winner, until a severe stroke felled him during a crusade in 1996. He is now making a courageous and remarkable recovery at his home in Willowdale, Ontario, Canada.
Lee Fisher. Born into a Christian family in Kokomo, Indiana, Lee was graduated from Fort Wayne Bible College. Illness cut short a promising career as itinerant evangelist, and through fellow gospel musician Homer Rodeheaver, he was introduced to Billy Graham and offered a post as research assistant. After moving to North Carolina, Lee became one of Billy's close associates, traveling with him on five continents. After retiring in 1976, Lee, now age 88 and legally blind, lives with his wife, Betty, in Sebastian, Florida. He is the author of several Christian books and many songs.
Charles G. Ward. After years with TEAM in South America, Chuck Ward became Billy's crusade coordinator on his two 1962 Latin American tours. Chuck's next task: dubbing Billy's TV messages into nine languages for viewing in fifty-two countries. Later he headed the massive TV-telephone counseling outreach that brought tens of thousands to Christ. At present Chuck and his wife, Margaret, live in Florida, and he still zealously trains Spanish-speaking volunteers for Billy's crusades. His carefully crafted crusade workers' handbook has become a bestseller.
Many other faithful and well-loved servants of Christ, men and women, have spent long years working with Billy Graham. I hope they will accept my regrets at not providing each with a paragraph. Unfortunately lack of space in this book has limited inclusion to those team members with whom I have worked most intimately.
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1. 2 Samuel 23:8-11.
2. Norman P. Grubb, C.T. Studd, Cricketer and Pioneer (London: Lutterworth, 1949).
3. William Martin, A Prophet with Honor (New York: William Morrow, 1991), 573.
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